Metaphysics is the theory of reality, much as epistemology is the theory of knowledge.

Plato's metaphysics are based on a division between the realm of forms and the realm of sense-perception. In the republic, this is most clearly discussed in his allegory of the cave

Aristotle rejects the idea of the forms, and instead proposes a realm of sense perception and a unified Nous

In modern times, Metaphysics has become the business of physics, which has tripped over itself and fallen back into philosophy. Nonetheless, the materialist approach which science is based on creates problems, in particular that of consciousness.

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