Chapter 8

First principle, three kinds of goods, virtue pleasant in itself (not by accident, luck)

We're back again with the first principle thing. So what is it? It's the starting point for any discussion. For Plato, it's that forms exist. For aristotle, it's that happiness is activity of the soul in accordance with virtue. Back in book6, he told us that Plato went from first principle, whereas he thinks he's going to the first principle. In other words, Aristotle thinks he's starting from experience and observation to get at the truth, and that Plaot starts from ideas about forms and tries to make reality fit with them. The important difference between the two is that Aristotle thinks its important to make sure your starting point is correct, based on experience and on what other people think!

External Goods, goods of the body, and goods of the soul.
Let's start from outside and go in: You have nice car, an iphone, a beautiful house? That's nice. Maybe you even have friends, or a family that loves you. That's great. And those are all external goods. This does not mean that they're irrelevant things—Unlike Plato who insists that justice is necessary and sufficient for happiness, Aristotle thinks it's not enough. IF you have no money and no friends, you won't be happy.
Then there are goods of the body. Chocolate tastes good, alcoohol feels good, and everyone has sex- these are all goods of the body. Of course, eating too much chocolate makes you fat, drinking too much makes you sick, and having too much sex means you don't do anythign with your life. This doesn't mean pleasure is bad, just that moderation is important.
FInally, we have goods of the soul. If you really want happiness, you gotta have these. And having goods of the soul requires doing good actions. No good actions means no good soul as far as Aristotle is concerned. And unlike external goods and goods of the body, the more goods of the soul you have, the happier you will be. So the more your actions are virtous, the happier you will be.
In Aristotle's words "is is those who act rightly who will attain what is noble and good." (1099a)

that's right, being just gives you pleasure— not just any pleasure, but the best kind of pleasure. People who get this wrong try to look for pleasure in the wrong places. THe masses, the unthinking people, hope that buying a new car, or getting drunk will make them happy. But it won't actually do that- it'll give them pleasure for a short period of time. But then a newer car comes out, or you get a hangover in the morning after drinking too much.
On the other hand, those who are virtous get pleasure from doing the right thing. Good people do good things becasue they WANT to. IF someone has to force you to do what is right, you won't enjoy it. Of course, it also means you're not a good person—

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